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​Other Problem-Solving Courts

 

Campus Drug Court

Pioneered at Colorado State University in 2001, campus drug courts (aka BACK on TRAC) adopt the integrated public health-public safety principles and components of the successful drug court model and apply them to the college environment. These programs specifically target college students whose excessive use of drugs or alcohol have created serious consequences for themselves or others, and are jeopardizing their ability to complete their college education. The programs hold students to a high level of accountability, while providing long-term, holistic treatment and rigorous compliance monitoring. They unite campus leaders, student development practitioners, treatment providers, and health professionals with their governmental, judicial, and treatment counterparts in the surrounding community. This partnership can then serve as a hub for comprehensive campus/community strategies for dealing with underage and excessive drinking, as well as illicit drug use (Monchick & Gehring, 2006). [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, p 43).]

Child Support Specialty Court

The focus of the child support specialty court is to empower noncustodial parents to provide economic support for their children by addressing barriers to employment. This is done by locating, securing, and maintaining a job to meet their child support obligation, while sustaining self-sufficiency. The child support court is a voluntary program for persons who are ordered to pay child support. Participants will include those who:
  • Are subject to a child support order
  • Have problems paying child support
  • Are without a job or are underemployed
  • Do not face pending charges
  • Desire to succeed and follow program rules

 

Child support court programs help noncustodial parents bond with their children, pay child support, and receive assistance through local agencies. Ancillary services may be provided by community mental health treatment providers, private treatment providers, substance abuse treatment providers, coordinating agencies, housing providers/shelters, Department of Labor-Michigan Works, Michigan Rehab, local employment agencies, local transit, Council of Government-regional offices, heating assistance, local charitable organizations, and local advocacy agencies.

Community Court

Community courts are problem-solving courts that use a community-focused approach in response to crime.  They use a form of restorative justice where the emphasis is on repairing the harm done to the community by the offender, which is accomplished through stakeholder cooperation.  Community courts strive to engage community members and organizations in the administration of justice.  Court sessions are often held outside the traditional courthouse and in a centrally located neighborhood building that offers more visibility and accessibility to the public.
 
Community courts primarily address "quality of life" crimes such as homelessness, vandalism, loitering, petty theft, disorderly conduct, and prostitution. Essential elements of community courts include restoring the community through compensation to the community.  Offenders pay back the neighborhood in which their offense was committed by performing extensive community services, such as ridding areas of litter, cleaning up areas of disorder, and participating in volunteer organizations and other community-restorative projects.
 
Another essential component to community courts is that they address any underlying problems the offender may have such as substance abuse, mental health disorders, and involvement in prostitution.  Often, treatment and social services are offered at the community court for participants.  Sentencing offenders to complete the services that will assist in addressing these underlying issues may reduce the likelihood of reoffending.
 
Stakeholders in community courts can include non-profit organizations that are vested in the revitalization of their community.  Law enforcement can play an essential role by referring potential participants into community courts and monitoring their actions while in the community.  The community's involvement may include assisting in the development of the court, expressing concerns and recommendations regarding the crimes in their area, and sanctioning options for the participants in community court.
 
(Lee, 2000). [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, p 43).] 

 

 

Co-Occurring Disorder Court

Co-occurring disorder courts require a formal diagnosis of both substance abuse disorder and serious mental illness for entry.

Domestic Violence Court

Domestic violence court is designed to address traditional problems confronted in domestic violence cases (e.g., withdrawn charges by victims, threats to victims, lack of defendant accountability, and high recidivism). It applies intense judicial scrutiny of the defendant and close cooperation between the judiciary and social services. A designated judge works with the prosecution, assigned victim advocates, social services, and the defense to protect victims from all forms of intimidation by the defendant or his or her family or associates throughout the entirety of the judicial process; provide victims with housing and job training, where needed; and continuously monitor defendants in terms of compliance with protective orders, substance abuse treatment, and other services. Close collaboration with defense counsel ensures compliance with due process safeguards and protects defendants' rights. One variant of this model is the integrated domestic violence court, in which a single judge handles multiple cases relating to one family, which might include criminal actions, protective orders, custody disputes, visitation issues, or divorce proceedings (Mazur & Aldrich, 2003). [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, pp 43-44).]

Gambling Court

Gambling court operates under the same protocols and guidelines utilized within the drug court model, with individuals who are suffering from a pathological or compulsive gambling disorder and, as a result, face criminal charges. Participants enroll in a contract-based, judicially-supervised gambling recovery program and are exposed to an array of services, including Gamblers Anonymous (GA), extensive psychotherapeutic intervention, debt counseling, and, if necessary, due to the high rates of co-morbidity, drug or alcohol treatment. Participation by family members or domestic partners is encouraged through direct participation in counseling with offenders and the availability of support programs such as GAM-ANON. Participants are subject to the same reporting and court response components as drug court participants (Huddleston, et al., 2005). [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, p 44).]

Gun Court

Gun court is typically designed for youths and young adults who have committed gun offenses that have not resulted in serious physical injury. Gun court focuses on educating defendants about gun safety and provides an infrastructure for direct and immediate responses to defendants who violate court orders. By consolidating all gun cases into one court docket, the assets needed for a prompt adjudication of these offenses and the coordination of efforts by numerous agencies and non-profit organizations in reducing the number of illegal guns on the streets are improved. [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, p 45).]

Homeless Court

Homeless court helps homeless people charged with summary or nuisance offenses secure housing and obtain social services needed for stabilization. Participation in services substitutes for fines and custody. These services include substance abuse and mental health treatment, health care, life-skills, literacy classes, and vocational training. [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, p 45).]

Parole Violation Court

(No federal definition.)

Prostitution Court

(No federal definition.)

Reentry Drug Court

Reentry drug court utilizes the drug court model, as defined in the 10 Key Components, to facilitate the reintegration of drug-involved offenders into communities upon their release from local or state correctional facilities. These are distinct from "reentry courts" (see below) which do not necessarily utilize the drug court model or focus on drug-addicted offenders, but often work with similar populations. The offender is involved in regular judicial monitoring, intensive treatment, community supervision, and drug testing. Participants are provided with specialized ancillary services needed for successful reentry into the community (Tauber & Huddleston, 1999). [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, pp 45-46).]

Reentry Court

Reentry court seeks to stabilize returning parolees during the initial phases of their community reintegration by helping them to find jobs, secure housing, remain drug-free, and assume familial and personal responsibilities. Following graduation, participants are transferred to traditional parole supervision, where they may continue to receive case management services voluntarily through the reentry court. The concept of the reentry court necessitates considerable cooperation between corrections and local judiciaries because it requires the coordination of the work of prisons in preparing offenders for release and actively involving community corrections agencies and various community resources in transitioning offenders back into the community through active judicial oversight (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2010; Hamilton, 2010). [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, p 46).]

Teen Court

Teen court is a juvenile diversion program aimed at keeping juveniles out of the court system. In this program, an individual teen defendant is informally charged with a crime and brought to the court to be tried by his or her peers who serve as the prosecutor, defense advocate, and jury in the case. The program is designed around the philosophy that a jury of one's peers is more influential in addressing behavior problems than any other method. Teen court defendants are required to admit responsibility for their actions prior to the teen court proceeding. Offenses include alcohol/drug offenses, disorderly conduct, curfew violations, harassment, minor assault, vandalism, retail fraud, illegal entry, and traffic offenses.


Tribal Healing to Wellness Court

A tribal healing to wellness court is not simply a tribal court that handles alcohol or other drug abuse cases. Rather, is is a component of the tribal justice system that incorporates and adapts the wellness concept to meet the specific substance abuse needs of each tribal community. It provides an opportunity to address the devastation of alcohol or other drug abuse by establishing more structure and a higher level of accountability for these cases through a system of comprehensive supervision, drug testing, treatment services, immediate sanctions and incentives, team-based case management, and community support. The team includes not only tribal judges, advocates, prosecutors, police officers, educators, and substance abuse and mental health professionals, but also tribal elders and traditional healers. The concept borrows from traditional problem-solving methods utilized since time immemorial, and restores the person to his or her rightful place as a contributing member of the tribal community. The programs utilize the unique strengths and history of each tribe, and realign existing resources available to the community in an atmosphere of communication, cooperation, and collaboration (Native American Alliance Foundation, 2006; Tribal Law & Policy Institute, 2003).

Truancy Court

Truancy court is designed to assist school-aged children to overcome the underlying causes of truancy by reinforcing and combining efforts from the school, court, mental health providers, families, and the community. Guidance counselors submit reports on the child's weekly progress throughout the school year, which the court uses to enable special testing, counseling, and other necessary services. Truancy court is often held on the school grounds and results in the ultimate dismissal of truancy petitions if the child can be helped to attend school regularly. Many courts have reorganized to form special truancy court dockets within the juvenile or family court. Consolidation of truancy cases results in speedier court dates and more consistent dispositions, and makes court personnel more attuned to the needs of truant youth and their families. Community programs bring together the schools, law enforcement, social service providers, mental and physical health care providers, and others to help stabilize families and reengage youth in their education (National Center for School Engagement, n.d.; National Truancy Prevention Association, 2005). [Huddleston & Marlowe, National Drug Court Institute and United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States (July 2011, pp 46-47).]